Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused. The latter is called water reclamation and implies avoidance of disposal by use of treated wastewater effluent for various purposes. Treatment means removing impurities from water being treated; and some methods of treatment are applicable to both water and wastewater. The physical infrastructure used for wastewater treatment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).


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  Domestic wastewater
Industrial wastewater
What is ? The wastewater coming from bathroom, WC, kitchen etc due to daily activities in houses, offices etc. The wastewater formation during an industrial application or production.
What for treatment ? Wastewater decreases the dissolved oxygen concentrations in water receiving bodies (lake, river, sea etc). Decrease in oxygen levels will cause aquatic life to be in danger. The food chain over the aquatic life will end up to humans who will be affected seriously. In Turkey, discharge of untreated wastewater to receiving bodies is restricted by environmental laws.
How treated? Generally biological treatment methods are preferred. Biological Treatment Process depends on bacteria which converts the organics (pollutants) to harmless by products or new bacteria cells without using any chemicals. Physical, chemical and / or biological Treatment methods are utilized in industrial wastewater treatment. Physical treatment is carried out without any chemical addition or biological activity. Chemical treatment process depends on the chemical reactions of wastewater with added chemicals.


What kind of materials are used during wastewater treatment plant construction?

Both domestic (sewage) and industrial wastewater treatments can be made of ;

  • Concrete construction
  • Steel construction
  • Plastic construction (PE, PP etc.)

Concrete constructions can be under or above the ground. Corrosion effects on steel construction WWTP should be well evaluated. Plastic constructions such as PP or PE or their dreivatives cannot handle larger flowrates. However they are good at acidic conditions or resistance to corrosion.